Content Rewrite Profile

Overview

Associating a content rewrite profile with an HTTP(s) virtual service enables modification of HTML content within the body of a server response. A content rewrite policy can be created and attached to a virtual service via the CLI or using an API.

A content rewrite profile specifies one or more strings to be searched for within the body of the server response. The profile neither modifies client requests nor server headers. Headers may be modified using other features such as DataScripts or policies. For information about rewriting response headers, read this article.

In NSX Advanced Load Balancer (previously Avi), the only way to modify the server response is through the content rewrite profile. The content rewrite profile can be configured in the virtual service. The profile contains a list of key-value pairs to match and replace strings in the response body. The content rewrite allows you to configure either literal strings or variables that are either:

  • defined in the DataScript (using avi.http.set_reqvar()).

  • defined internally for common virtual service or HTTP request parameters (like $vs_name, $vs_ip, $http_host, $req_id, and so on).

Starting with NSX Advanced Load Balancer version 21.1.3, a new object model is introduced. This allows configuring a whole list of Content Rewrite rules. See Content Rewrite Rules for more information.

Searching

  • Content rewriting can be computationally expensive. Therefore, it is recommended to limit the search-replace to specific content types that should be modified. The rewritable_content_ref argument is used to specify a string group, which contains a list of eligible content types. By default, NSX Advanced Load Balancer configurations include the System-Rewritable-Content-Types string group, a list containing common text-based HTML MIME types such as text/html, text/plain, etc. This ensures that base64-encoded content, such as images, are not inspected when performing search-replace operations.
  • Search is conducted throughout the entire body of the eligible server response, with no length limit.
  • If a search string is found in multiple locations within a single HTTP response body, it will be replaced in all those locations.
  • Multiple search-replace pairs can be specified in a single content rewrite profile; all are actively and independently applied. The content replacement is not recursive. For example, consider a profile having a search-replace of “a” with “b”, and a second search-replace of “b” with “c”. Only pre-existing instances of “b” in the server response will be replaced with “c.” Instances of “a” that are replaced with “b” are not recursively checked and replaced with “c.” Thus, with both pairs applied, a server response body of “abca” would be rewritten to “bccb.”
  • Searches are not case-sensitive.

Replacement String Types

The found strings may be replaced with new strings via one of three methods used to specify the new string.

  1. Literal strings are basic text strings to be used for replacing data found in response bodies.
  2. Strings within identified HTTP headers can be incorporated into replacement strings. Just specify the header name, and its current value will be used as the replacement string. If the header does not exist, the search string will be replaced with null data, effectively removing the search string from the response. When using HTTP Header, set the Type to HTTP_HEADER_VAR, and then input the name of the header to use.
  3. DataScript can be used to generate a replacement string. Create and attach a new DataScript to the virtual service. It must use the avi.http.set_reqvar() function to specify the new value. For example, a call to avi.http.set_reqvar(“key1”, “value1”) creates a variable named key1 and sets it to value1. In the content rewrite profile, set the type to DATASCRIPT_VAR and the variable to key1. With each HTTP request, the DataScript can uniquely set the DataScript variable to key1 and assign it a new value (e.g., value1, value2, and so on), based on the script logic. If no DataScript has been assigned to the virtual service, if the variable is set to a different name, or no variable has been set, the content rewrite profile will replace the searched string with null data, effectively removing the searched string from the response.

CLI Configuration

In the configuration shown below, notice these operative fields within the VirtualService object named VS3:

  • content_rewrite.rewritable_content_ref
  • content_rewrite.request_rewrite_enabled
  • content_rewrite.response_rewrite_enabled
  • content_rewrite.rsp_match_replace_pair.match_string
  • content_rewrite.rsp_match_replace_pair.replacement_string.type
  • content_rewrite.rsp_match_replace_pair.replacement_string.val

Note”: [TAB][TAB] in the below terminal dialog to indicate the user’s typing of 2 tabs, causing the Avi shell to reveal command-line syntax.

    
[admin:10-160-0-3]: > configure virtualservice VS3
Updating an existing object. Currently, the object is:
+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| Field                            | Value                                               |
+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| uuid                             | virtualservice-d49aff8a-2846-457b-98c7-657c18675b0e |
| name                             | VS3                                                 |
| enabled                          | True                                                |
| services[1]                      |                                                     |
|   port                           | 80                                                  |
|   enable_ssl                     | False                                               |
|   port_range_end                 | 80                                                  |
| application_profile_ref          | System-HTTP                                         |
| network_profile_ref              | System-TCP-Proxy                                    |
| pool_ref                         | VS3-pool                                            |
| se_group_ref                     | Default-Group                                       |
| network_security_policy_ref      | vs-VS3-Default-Cloud-ns                             |
| analytics_policy                 |                                                     |
|   full_client_logs               |                                                     |
|     enabled                      | True                                                |
|     duration                     | 30 min                                              |
|     all_headers                  | False                                               |
|   client_insights                | ACTIVE                                              |
|   metrics_realtime_update        |       |                                                     |
|     enabled                      | True                                                |
|     duration                     | 30 min                                              |
| vrf_context_ref                  | global                                              |
| enable_autogw                    | True                                                |
| analytics_profile_ref            | System-Analytics-Profile                            |
| weight                           | 1                                                   |
| delay_fairness                   | False                                               |
| max_cps_per_client               | 0                                                   |
| limit_doser                      | False                                               |
| type                             | VS_TYPE_NORMAL                                      |
| cloud_type                       | CLOUD_NONE                                          |
| use_bridge_ip_as_vip             | False                                               |
| flow_dist                        | LOAD_AWARE                                          |
| ign_pool_net_reach               | False                                               |
| ssl_sess_cache_avg_size          | 1024                                                |
| remove_listening_port_on_vs_down | False                                               |
| tenant_ref                       | admin                                               |
| cloud_ref                        | Default-Cloud                                       |
| east_west_placement              | False                                               |
| scaleout_ecmp                    | False                                               |
| active_standby_se_tag            | ACTIVE_STANDBY_SE_1                                 |
| flow_label_type                  | NO_LABEL                                            |
| content_rewrite                  |                                                     |
|   rewritable_content_ref         | System-Rewritable-Content-Types                     |
|   request_rewrite_enabled        | False                                               |
|   response_rewrite_enabled       | False                                               |
| sideband_profile                 |                                                     |
|   sideband_max_request_body_size | 1024 bytes                                          |
| vip[1]                           |                                                     |
|   vip_id                         | 1                                                   |
|   ip_address                     | 10.160.33.200                                       |
|   enabled                        | True                                                |
|   auto_allocate_ip               | False                                               |
|   auto_allocate_floating_ip      | False                                               |
|   avi_allocated_vip              | False                                               |
|   avi_allocated_fip              | False                                               |
| vsvip_ref                        | vsvip-VS3-Default-Cloud                             |
+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice> content_rewrite
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> where
Tenant: admin
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
| Field                    | Value                           |
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
| rewritable_content_ref   | System-Rewritable-Content-Types |
| request_rewrite_enabled  | False                           |
| response_rewrite_enabled | False                           |
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> response_rewrite_enabled [TAB][TAB]
request_rewrite_enabled   Enable rewrite on request body.
rewritable_content_ref    Rewrite only content types listed in this string group. Content types not present in this list are not rewritten.
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> response_rewrite_enabled
Overwriting the previously entered value for response_rewrite_enabled
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> where
Tenant: admin
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
| Field                    | Value                           |
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
| rewritable_content_ref   | System-Rewritable-Content-Types |
| request_rewrite_enabled  | False                           |
| response_rewrite_enabled | True                            |
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> rsp_match_replace_pair
New object being created
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_match_replace_pair> where
Tenant: admin
No result.

[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_match_replace_pair> match_string ABC
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_match_replace_pair> replacement_string
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_match_replace_pair:replacement_string> type [TAB][TAB]
datascript_var    The variable exposed in datascript to be used as the replacement string in content rewrite.
http_header_var   The HTTP header to be used as the replacement string in content rewrite.
literal_string    The literal string to be used as the replacement string in content rewrite.
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_match_replace_pair:replacement_string> type literal_string
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_match_replace_pair:replacement_string> val XYZ
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_match_replace_pair:replacement_string> save
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_match_replace_pair> where
Tenant: admin
+--------------------+----------------+
| Field              | Value          |
+--------------------+----------------+
| match_string       | ABC            |
| replacement_string |                |
|   type             | LITERAL_STRING |
|   val              | XYZ            |
+--------------------+----------------+
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_match_replace_pair> save
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> save
[admin:10-160-0-3]: virtualservice> save
+----------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| Field                            | Value                                                |
+----------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| uuid                             | virtualservice-d49aff8a-2846-457b-98c7-657c18675b0e  |
| name                             | VS3                                                  |
| enabled                          | True                                                 |
| services[1]                      |                                                      |
| port                             | 80                                                   |
| enable_ssl                       | False                                                |
| port_range_end                   | 80                                                   |
| application_profile_ref          | System-HTTP                                          |
| network_profile_ref              | System-TCP-Proxy                                     |
| pool_ref                         | VS3-pool                                             |
| se_group_ref                     | Default-Group                                        |
| network_security_policy_ref      | vs-VS3-Default-Cloud-ns                              |
| analytics_policy                 |                                                      |
| full_client_logs                 |                                                      |
| enabled                          | True                                                 |
| duration                         | 30 min                                               |
| all_headers                      | False                                                |
| client_insights                  | ACTIVE                                               |
| metrics_realtime_update          |                                                      |
| enabled                          | True                                                 |
| duration                         | 30 min                                               |
| vrf_context_ref                  | global                                               |
| enable_autogw                    | True                                                 |
| analytics_profile_ref            | System-Analytics-Profile                             |
| weight                           | 1                                                    |
| delay_fairness                   | False                                                |
| max_cps_per_client               | 0                                                    |
| limit_doser                      | False                                                |
| type                             | VS_TYPE_NORMAL                                       |
| cloud_type                       | CLOUD_NONE                                           |
| use_bridge_ip_as_vip             | False                                                |
| flow_dist                        | LOAD_AWARE                                           |
| ign_pool_net_reach               | False                                                |
| ssl_sess_cache_avg_size          | 1024                                                 |
| remove_listening_port_on_vs_down | False                                                |
| tenant_ref                       | admin                                                |
| cloud_ref                        | Default-Cloud                                        |
| east_west_placement              | False                                                |
| scaleout_ecmp                    | False                                                |
| active_standby_se_tag            | ACTIVE_STANDBY_SE_1                                  |
| flow_label_type                  | NO_LABEL                                             |
| content_rewrite                  |                                                      |
|rewritable_content_ref            | System-Rewritable-Content-Types                      |
|request_rewrite_enabled           | False                                                |
|response_rewrite_enabled          | True                                                 |
|rsp_match_replace_pair[1]         |                                                      |
|match_string                      | ABC                                                  |
|replacement_string                |                                                      |
|       type                       | LITERAL_STRING                                       |
|       val                        | XYZ                                                  |
| sideband_profile                 |                                                      |
|   sideband_max_request_body_size | 1024 bytes                                           |
| vip[1]                           |                                                      |
|   vip_id                         | 1                                                    |
|   ip_address                     | 10.160.33.200                                        |
|   enabled                        | True                                                 |
|   auto_allocate_ip               | False                                                |
|   auto_allocate_floating_ip      | False                                                |
|   avi_allocated_vip              | False                                                |
|   avi_allocated_fip              | False                                                |
| vsvip_ref                        | vsvip-VS3-Default-Cloud                              |
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------- +

To view the content rewrite profile configuration on a virtual service,

                                                                                                             
[admin:10-160-0-8]: show virtualservice virtualservice-1                                                                  
+----------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 
| Field                            | Value                                                                           | 
+----------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 
|uuid                              | virtualservice-80519ed3-00f8-437d-9b4e-66c12f331f60                             | 
|name                              | virtualservice-1                                                                | 
|enabled                           | True                                                                            | 
|services[1]	                   |                                                                                 | 
|port                              | 9000                                                                            | 
|enable_ssl                        | False                                                                           | 
|port_range_end                    | 9000                                                                            |  
|services[2]	                   |                                                                                 |  
|port       	                   | 9443                                                                            |  
|enable_ssl 	                   | True                                                                            |  
|port_range_end	                   | 9443                                                                            |  
|application_profile_ref           | applicationprofile-1                                                            |  
|network_profile_ref	           | System-TCP-Proxy                                                                |  
|pool_ref                          | pool-1                                                                          |  
|se_group_ref	                   | Default-Group                                                                   |  
|ssl_key_and_certificate_refs[1]   | System-Default-Cert-EC                                                          |  
|ssl_profile_ref	               | System-Standard                                                                 |  
|analytics_policy	               |                                                                                 |  
|full_client_logs                  |                                                                                 |  
|enabled     	                   | True                                                                            |  
|duration    	                   | 0 min                                                                           |  
|throttle    	                   | 0 per_second                                                                    |  
|client_insights                   | NO_INSIGHTS                                                                     |  
|all_headers	                   | True                                                                            |  
|metrics_realtime_update           |                                                                                 | 
|enabled     	                   | True                                                                            |  
|duration                          |0 min                                                                            | 
|udf_log_throttle                  |0 per_second                                                                     | 
|significant_log_throttle          |0 per_second                                                                     | 
|enabled                           |True                                                                             | 
|vrf_context_ref                   |global                                                                           | 
|enable_autogw                     |True                                                                             | 
|analytics_profile_ref             |System-Analytics-Profile                                                         | 
|vs_datascripts[1]                 |                                                                                 | 
|index                             | 0                                                                               | 
|vs_datascript_set_ref             | vsds1-0                                                                         | 
|weight                            |  1                                                                              | 
|delay_fairness                    | False                                                                           | 
|max_cps_per_client                |   0                                                                             | 
|limit_doser                       | False                                                                           | 
|type                              | VS_TYPE_NORMAL                                                                  | 
|cloud_type                        | CLOUD_NONE                                                                      | 
|use_bridge_ip_as_vip              | False                                                                           | 
|flow_dist                         | CONSISTENT_HASH_SOURCE_IP_ADDRESS_AND_PORT                                      | 
|ign_pool_net_reach                | False                                                                           | 
|ssl_sess_cache_avg_size           | 1024                                                                            | 
| remove_listening_port_on_vs_down | False                                                                           | 
|close_client_conn_on_config_update| False                                                                           | 
|bulk_sync_kvcache                 | False                                                                           | 
|tenant_ref                        | admin                                                                           | 
| cloud_ref                        | Default-Cloud                                                                   | 
| east_west_placement              | False                                                                           | 
| scaleout_ecmp                    | False                                                                           | 
| active_standby_se_tag            | ACTIVE_STANDBY_SE_1                                                             | 
| flow_label_type                  | NO_LABEL                                                                        | 
| content_rewrite                  |                                                                                 | 
| rewritable_content_ref           | sg-1                                                                            | 
| request_rewrite_enabled          | False                                                                           | 
| response_rewrite_enabled         | True                                                                            | 
| rsp_match_replace_pair[1]        |                                                                                 | 
| match_string                     | The Big Picture                                                                 | 
| replacement_string               |                                                                                 | 
| type                             | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
| val                              | The Bigger Picture                                                              | 
| rsp_match_replace_pair[2]        |                                                                                 | 
| match_string                     | abankerisafellowwholendsyouhisumbrellawhenthesunisshining                       |                      
|replacement_string                |                                                                                 | 
|type                              | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
|VAL                               | ABANKERISAFELLOWWHOLENDSYOUHISUMBRELLAWHENTHESUNISSHINING                       | 
|rsp_match_replace_pair[3]         |                                                                                 | 
| match_string	                   | literal                                                                         | 
|replacement_string                |                                                                                 | 
| type                             | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
| val                              | blah                                                                            | 
| rsp_match_replace_pair[4]        |                                                                                 | 
| match_string                     | httpvar                                                                         | 
| replacement_string               |                                                                                 | 
|type                              | HTTP_HEADER_VAR                                                                 | 
| val                              | http_host                                                                       | 
| match_string                     | datascriptvar                                                                   | 
| replacement_string               |                                                                                 | 
| type                             | DATASCRIPT_VAR                                                                  | 
|  val                             | modified_hostname                                                               | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[6]       |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | fghijkl                                                                         | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | HTTP_HEADER_VAR                                                                 | 
|  val                             | http_host                                                                       | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[7]       |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | datascript_some_var                                                             | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | DATASCRIPT_VAR                                                                  | 
|  val                             | some_var                                                                        | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[8]       |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | integer_variable                                                                | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | DATASCRIPT_VAR                                                                  | 
|  val                             | int_variable                                                                    | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[9]       |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | true_var                                                                        | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | DATASCRIPT_VAR                                                                  | 
|  val                             | true_variable                                                                   | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[10]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | false_var                                                                       | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | DATASCRIPT_VAR                                                                  | 
|  val                             | false_variable                                                                  | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[11]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | unset_var                                                                       | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | DATASCRIPT_VAR                                                                  | 
|  val                             | get_unset                                                                       | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[12]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | variable1                                                                       | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | DATASCRIPT_VAR                                                                  | 
|  val                             | multi_var1                                                                      | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[13]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | small_match                                                                     | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
|  val                             | abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVQXYZ 9876543210 ABCD| 
|                                  | EFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVQXYZ 0123456789 9876543210_abcdefghijk                        | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[14]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | ZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA_9876543210_0123456789_zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcba_The | 
|                                  | quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog_Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs.|             
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | DATASCRIPT_VAR                                                                  | 
|  val                             | modified_hostname                                                               | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[15]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | nginx                                                                           | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
|  val                             | content rewrite                                                                 | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[16]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | apache                                                                          | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
|  val                             | NGINX                                                                           | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[17]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | FEDORA                                                                          | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
|  val                             | Ubuntu                                                                          | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[18]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | SerVer                                                                          | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
|  val                             | backend                                                                         | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[19]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | SSL_VERSION_TLS1_1                                                              | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
|  val                             | SSL_VERSION_TLS1_2                                                              | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[20]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | Gambardella                                                                     | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
|  val                             | alledrabmaG                                                                     | 
|  rsp_match_replace_pair[21]      |                                                                                 | 
|  match_string                    | ztoa                                                                            | 
|  replacement_string              |                                                                                 | 
|  type                            | LITERAL_STRING                                                                  | 
|  val                             | ZTOA                                                                            | 
|  vip[1]                          |                                                                                 | 
|  vip_id                          | 0                                                                               | 
|  ip_address                      | 10.160.35.63                                                                    | 
|  enabled                         | True                                                                            | 
|  auto_allocate_ip                | False                                                                           | 
|  auto_allocate_floating_ip       | False                                                                           | 
|  avi_allocated_vip               | False                                                                           | 
|  avi_allocated_fip               | False                                                                           | 
|  auto_allocate_ip_type           | V4_ONLY                                                                         | 
|  vsvip_ref                       | vsvip-beK7uc                                                                    | 
|  use_vip_as_snat                 | False                                                                           | 
|  traffic_enabled                 | True                                                                            | 
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 
[admin:10-160-0-8]:   

Content-Rewrite Rules

The new object model introduced in NSX Advanced Load Balancer 21.1.3 allows configuring a whole list of Content Rewrite rules. Each rule has a name, index, and a list of search and replace pairs to be configured. The configured rules will run in order they are defined i.e., the first rule will take precedence over the second rule and so on.

Search String Types

Starting with NSX Advanced Load Balancer version 21.1.3, different types of strings to search for are supported.
There are four types of search strings within the response body:

  • Literal String: Exactly matches the string value to search and replace.

  • Avi Variable: There are predefined variables that can be used that contain the values of HTTP headers (like Host, User-Agent, or Cookie) or specific parameters of the request or Virtual Service (like VS IP, VS name, request ID, etc.). The value of the variable will be the string used for searching. If the variable does not exist, then there is no data is to search for and the associated replacement string will not be seen in the rewritten response. Set the type to SEARCH_AVI_VAR, and then input the name of the variable to use.

  • DataScript Variable: DataScript can be used to generate a search string. Create and attach a new DataScript to the virtual service. It must use the function to specify the new value. For example, a call to avi.http.set_reqvar(“key1”, “value1”) creates a variable named key1 and sets it to value1. In the content rewrite profile, set the type to SEARCH_DATASCRIPT_VAR and the variable to key1. With each HTTP request, the DataScript can uniquely set the DataScript variable to key1 and assign it a new value (e.g., value1, value2, and so on), based on the script logic. The value set for this DataScript variable will be the string used to search for.

  • Regular Expression: Configure a PCRE compatible regular expression as a search string. This will allow you to search for all matches to this regular expression in the response body. The regular expression may contain capture groups that could be used in the corresponding replacement string.

Replacement String Types

The found strings may be replaced with new strings via one of three methods used to specify the new string.

  • Literal string: Basic text strings to be used for replacing data found in response bodies.

  • Avi Variable: Set the type to AVI_VAR, and then input the name of the variable to use. The value of the variable will be used to replace the found string. If the variable does not exist, then the value used in the replacement string will be empty, effectively removing the search string from the response. The list of variables are as follows:

Name Description
client_ip The source (client’s) IP address (V4 or V6)
client_port The client port from which the request was sent
client_userid The username sent in the client request
host The server header value
http_cookie The cookie header values
http_host The host header value
http_referer The referer header value
http_user_agent The user-Agent header value
http_via The via header value
http_x_forwarded_for The X-Forwarded-For header values
horizon_blast_port The Horizon server port for Blast protocol traffic
horizon_l7_port The Horizon server port for primary protocol traffic
horizon_pcoip_port The Horizon server port for PCOIP protocol traffic
poolname The Name of the pool in use
request_id The request ID
  • DataScript Variable: DataScript variables can also be used as the replacement string. The content rewrite profile will replace the searched string with null data, effectively removing the searched string from the response if:
    • No DataScript has been assigned to the virtual service
    • The variable is set to a different name
    • No variable has been set
  • Combination String: Allows for crafting a string that can be a mix of literal strings and variables. This allows for adding text along with variable names that can be parsed into their respective value.For instance, the virtual service IP and port are ${vs_ip}:${vs_port}. Here the variables are vs_ip and vs_port and will be replaced with the virtual service’s IP address and port respectively. The variables are determined by the variable name within ${}. If the variable is not defined, you can use the empty string in its place. Combination Strings can also access regex captures groups using the variables ${1} ,${2} ,…, ${n}.

Examples of Search & Replace Pairs

Example 1:
Replace all instances of the user-agent in the response with “Avi”.


+----------------------+-----------------+
| Field                | Value           |
+----------------------+-----------------+
| pairs[1]             |                 |
|   search_string      |                 |
|     type             | SEARCH_AVI_VAR  |
|     val              | http_user_agent |
|   replacement_string |                 |
|     type             | LITERAL_STRING  |
|     val              | Avi             |
+----------------------+-----------------+

Example 2
Replace the address and port in the server response with the VS IP and VS port.


+----------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| Field                | Value                                                          |
+----------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| pairs[1]             |                                                                |
|   search_string      |                                                                |
|     type             | SEARCH_REGEX                                                   |
|     val              | (address:)[\s]*(?:[0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}[\s]*              |
|   replacement_string |                                                                |
|     type             | COMBINATION_STRING                                             |
|     val              | ${1}${vs_ip}                                                   |
| pairs[2]             |                                                                |
|   search_string      |                                                                |
|     type             | SEARCH_REGEX                                                   |
|     val              | (port:)[\s]*\d{1,5}[\s]*                                       |
|   replacement_string |                                                                |
|     type             | COMBINATION_STRING                                             |
|     val              | ${1}${vs_port}                                                 |
+----------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+

CLI Configuration

In the CLI configuration shown below, notice these operative fields within the VirtualService object named VS3:

  • content_rewrite.rewritable_content_ref
  • content_rewrite.rsp_rewrite_rules.enable
  • content_rewrite.rsp_rewrite_rules.index
  • content_rewrite.rsp_rewrite_rules.name
  • content_rewrite.rsp_rewrite_rules.pairs.search_string.type
  • content_rewrite.rsp_rewrite_rules.pairs.search_string.val
  • content_rewrite.rsp_rewrite_rules.pairs.replacement_string.type
  • content_rewrite.rsp_rewrite_rules.pairs.replacement_string.val

Note: [TAB][TAB] in the configuration indicates pressing the tab key twice. By doing so the Avi shell reveals the command-line syntax.

To configure the Content Rewrite Profile for vs-1


[admin:1234]: > configure virtualservice vs-1
Updating an existing object. Currently, the object is:
+------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| Field                              | Value                                               |
+------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| uuid                               | virtualservice-eac16467-fcaa-4e31-bc0a-5fb3e6bdef19 |
| name                               | vs-1                                                |
| enabled                            | False                                               |
| services[1]                        |                                                     |
|   port                             | 80                                                  |
|   enable_ssl                       | False                                               |
|   port_range_end                   | 80                                                  |
|   enable_http2                     | False                                               |
|   horizon_internal_ports           | False                                               |
|   is_active_ftp_data_port          | False                                               |
|----------------------------Truncated Output----------------------------------------------|
| content_rewrite                    |                                                     |
|   rewritable_content_ref           | System-Rewritable-Content-Types                     |
| sideband_profile                   |                                                     |
|   sideband_max_request_body_size   | 1024 bytes                                          |
| vsvip_ref                          | vs-1-VsVip                                          |
| use_vip_as_snat                    | False                                               |
| error_page_profile_ref             | Custom-Error-Page-Profile                           |
| traffic_enabled                    | True                                                |
| allow_invalid_client_cert          | False                                               |
| vh_type                            | VS_TYPE_VH_SNI                                      |
+------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
[admin:1234]: virtualservice> content_rewrite
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> where
Tenant: admin
Cloud: Default-Cloud
+------------------------+---------------------------------+
| Field                  | Value                           |
+------------------------+---------------------------------+
| rewritable_content_ref | System-Rewritable-Content-Types |
+------------------------+---------------------------------+
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> rsp_rewrite_rules
New object being created
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules> enable
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules> index 1
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules> name "rewrite-rule-1"
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules> where
Tenant: admin
Cloud: Default-Cloud
+--------+----------------+
| Field  | Value          |
+--------+----------------+
| name   | rewrite-rule-1 |
| enable | True           |
| index  | 1              |
+--------+----------------+
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules> pairs
New object being created
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> search_string type search_literal_string val ABC
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:search_string> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> replacement_string type literal_string val XYZ
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:replacement_string> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> where
Tenant: admin
Cloud: Default-Cloud
+--------------------+-----------------------+
| Field              | Value                 |
+--------------------+-----------------------+
| search_string      |                       |
|   type             | SEARCH_LITERAL_STRING |
|   val              | ABC                   |
| replacement_string |                       |
|   type             | LITERAL_STRING        |
|   val              | XYZ                   |
+--------------------+-----------------------+
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules> pairs
New object being created
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> search_string type search_literal_string val httpvar
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:search_string> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> replacement_string type avi_var val http_host
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:replacement_string> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> where
Tenant: admin
Cloud: Default-Cloud
+--------------------+-----------------------+
| Field              | Value                 |
+--------------------+-----------------------+
| search_string      |                       |
|   type             | SEARCH_LITERAL_STRING |
|   val              | httpvar               |
| replacement_string |                       |
|   type             | AVI_VAR               |
|   val              | http_host             |
+--------------------+-----------------------+
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules> pairs
New object being created
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> search_string
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:search_string> type search_regex
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:search_string> val "()[\s]*(?:https://)?[\w\.-]*:443[\s]*()"
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:search_string> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> replacement_string
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:replacement_string> type combination_string
val[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:replacement_string> val "${1}https://${uag_fqdn}:${horizon_l7_port}${2}"
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs:replacement_string> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> where
Tenant: admin
Cloud: Default-Cloud
+--------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| Field              | Value                                                      |
+--------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| search_string      |                                                            |
|   type             | SEARCH_REGEX                                               |
|   val              | (UAG:)[\s]*(?:https://)?[\w\.-]*:443[\s]*                  |
| replacement_string |                                                            |
|   type             | COMBINATION_STRING                                         |
|   val              | ${1}https://${uag_fqdn}:${vs_port}                         |
+--------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules:pairs> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite:rsp_rewrite_rules> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> where
Tenant: admin
Cloud: Default-Cloud
+------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| Field                  | Value                                                      |
+------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| rewritable_content_ref | System-Rewritable-Content-Types                            |
| rsp_rewrite_rules[1]   |                                                            |
|   name                 | rewrite-rule-1                                             |
|   enable               | True                                                       |
|   index                | 1                                                          |
|   pairs[1]             |                                                            |
|     search_string      |                                                            |
|       type             | SEARCH_LITERAL_STRING                                      |
|       val              | ABC                                                        |
|     replacement_string |                                                            |
|       type             | LITERAL_STRING                                             |
|       val              | XYZ                                                        |
|   pairs[2]             |                                                            |
|     search_string      |                                                            |
|       type             | SEARCH_LITERAL_STRING                                      |
|       val              | httpvar                                                    |
|     replacement_string |                                                            |
|       type             | AVI_VAR                                                    |
|       val              | http_host                                                  |
|   pairs[3]             |                                                            |
|     search_string      |                                                            |
|       type             | SEARCH_REGEX                                               |
|       val              | (UAG:)[\s]*(?:https://)?[\w\.-]*:443[\s]*                  |
|     replacement_string |                                                            |
|       type             | COMBINATION_STRING                                         |
|       val              | ${1}https://${uag_fqdn}:${vs_port}                         |
+------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
[admin:1234]: virtualservice:content_rewrite> save
[admin:1234]: virtualservice> save
+------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| Field                              | Value                                                      |
+------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| uuid                               | virtualservice-eac16467-fcaa-4e31-bc0a-5fb3e6bdef19        |
| name                               | vs-1                                                       |
| enabled                            | False                                                      |
| services[1]                        |                                                            |
|   port                             | 80                                                         |
|   enable_ssl                       | False                                                      |
|   port_range_end                   | 80                                                         |
|   enable_http2                     | False                                                      |
|   horizon_internal_ports           | False                                                      |
|   is_active_ftp_data_port          | False                                                      |
|-----------------------------Truncated Output----------------------------------------------------|
| content_rewrite                    |                                                            |
|   rewritable_content_ref           | System-Rewritable-Content-Types                            |
|   rsp_rewrite_rules[1]             |                                                            |
|     name                           | rewrite-rule-1                                             |
|     enable                         | True                                                       |
|     index                          | 1                                                          |
|     pairs[1]                       |                                                            |
|       search_string                |                                                            |
|         type                       | SEARCH_LITERAL_STRING                                      |
|         val                        | ABC                                                        |
|       replacement_string           |                                                            |
|         type                       | LITERAL_STRING                                             |
|         val                        | XYZ                                                        |
|     pairs[2]                       |                                                            |
|       search_string                |                                                            |
|         type                       | SEARCH_LITERAL_STRING                                      |
|         val                        | httpvar                                                    |
|       replacement_string           |                                                            |
|         type                       | AVI_VAR                                                    |
|         val                        | http_host                                                  |
|     pairs[3]                       |                                                            |
|       search_string                |                                                            |
|         type                       | SEARCH_REGEX                                               |
|         val                        | (UAG:)[\s]*(?:https://)?[\w\.-]*:443[\s]*                  |
|       replacement_string           |                                                            |
|         type                       | COMBINATION_STRING                                         |
|         val                        | ${1}https://${uag_fqdn}:${vs_port}                         |
|-----------------------------Truncated Output----------------------------------------------------|

Caveat

Client request rewriting is currently not supported in NSX Advanced Load Balancer.

Suggested Reading